The Cardiovascular System
- → Transportation of nutrients (O2
- → Thermoregulation
What is covered in this Lesson
- Central Dogma of Biology
By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
- Explain the flow of biological information genetics to proteins.
- Describe the process of transcription include that proteins and molecules are involved.
- Outline what happens in each of the three stages of protein translation.
Central Dogma of DNA
Deviations from the simple scheme of the central dogma can be found in nature. For example the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which mean it stores its genetic information in single stranded RNA molecules. Upon infection of a host cell, RNA is used as a template by the virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase, to synthesize DNA. The viral DNA is incorporated into the host cell’s genome. Later it is transcribed into mRNA and then translated into proteins. Some RNA viruses such as the influenza virus never go through a DNA step. The RNA genome is replicated by an RNA dependent RNA polymerase which is virally encoded.
Transcription: Copying DNA to RNA
Translation: Turning mRNA into Protein
- Fowler, S, Roush R, and Wise J. “Molecular Biology.” Concepts of Biology. Houston, TX: OpenStax, https://openstax.org/books/concepts-biology/pages/9-3-transcription. License: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction..
- Zedalis, J, and Eggebrecht, J. “3.5 Nucleic Acids.” Biology for AP® Courses, p. OpenStax, https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/15-1-the-genetic-code. License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction