Measuring Lung Capacity with Spirometry
What is covered in this Lesson
- Gas Exchange
- Lung Capacity
By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
- Name and describe lung volumes and capacities
- Understand how gas pressure influences how gases move into and out of the body
Basic Principles of Gas Exchange
The structure of the lung maximizes its surface area to increase gas diffusion. Because of the enormous number of alveoli (approximately 300 million in each human lung), the surface area of the lung is very large (75m2). Having such a large surface area increases the amount of gas that can diffuse into and out of the lungs.
Gas exchange during respiration occurs primarily through diffusion. Diffusion is a process in which transport is driven by a concentration gradient. Gas molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Blood that is low in oxygen concentration and high in carbon dioxide concentration undergoes gas exchange with air in the lungs. The air in the lungs has a higher concentration of oxygen than that of oxygen-depleted blood and a lower concentration of carbon dioxide. This concentration gradient allows for gas exchange during respiration.
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Different animals have different lung capacities based on their activities. Cheetahs have evolved a much higher lung capacity than humans; it helps provide oxygen to all the muscles in the body and allows them to run very fast. Elephants also have a high lung capacity. In this case, it is not because they run fast but because they have a large body and must be able to take up oxygen in accordance with their body size.
Human lung size is determined by genetics, sex, and height. At maximal capacity, an average lung can hold almost six liters of air, but lungs do not usually operate at maximal capacity. Air in the lungs is measured in terms of lung volumes and lung capacities. Volume measures the amount of air for one function (such as inhalation or exhalation). Capacity is any two or more volumes (for example, how much can be inhaled from the end of a maximal exhalation).
The volume in the lung can be divided into four units:
- Tidal volume
- …measures the amount of air that is inspired and expired during a normal breath. On average, this volume is around one-half liter.
- Expiratory reserve volume
- …the additional amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation. It is the reserve amount that can be exhaled beyond what is normal.
- Inspiratory reserve volume
- the additional amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation.
- Residual volume
- …the amount of air that is left after expiratory reserve volume is exhaled. The lungs are never completely empty: There is always some air left in the lungs after a maximal exhalation. If this residual volume did not exist and the lungs emptied completely, the lung tissues would stick together and the energy necessary to reinflate the lung could be too great to overcome. Therefore, there is always some air remaining in the lungs. Residual volume is also important for preventing large fluctuations in respiratory gases (O2 and CO2). The residual volume is the only lung volume that cannot be measured directly because it is impossible to completely empty the lung of air. This volume can only be calculated rather than measured.
Capacities are measurements of two or more volumes. The vital capacity (VC) measures the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled or exhaled during a respiratory cycle. It is the sum of the expiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and inspiratory reserve volume. The inspiratory capacity (IC) is the amount of air that can be inhaled after the end of a normal expiration. It is, therefore, the sum of the tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume. The functional residual capacity (FRC) includes the expiratory reserve volume and the residual volume. The FRC measures the amount of additional air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation. Lastly, the total lung capacity (TLC) is a measurement of the total amount of air that the lung can hold. It is the sum of the residual volume, expiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and inspiratory reserve volume.
Lung volumes are measured by a technique called spirometry. An important measurement taken during spirometry is the forced expiratory volume (FEV), which measures how much air can be forced out of the lung over a specific period, usually one second (FEV1). In addition, the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the total amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled, is measured. The ratio of these values (FEV1/FVC ratio) is used to diagnose lung diseases including asthma, emphysema, and fibrosis. If the FEV1/FVC ratio is high, the lungs are not compliant (meaning they are stiff and unable to bend properly), and the patient most likely has lung fibrosis. Patients exhale most of the lung volume very quickly. Conversely, when the FEV1/FVC ratio is low, there is resistance in the lung that is characteristic of asthma. In this instance, it is hard for the patient to get the air out of his or her lungs, and it takes a long time to reach the maximal exhalation volume. In either case, breathing is difficult and complications arise.
The chart shows the exchange of air during inhalation and exhalation, which resembles a wave pattern. During normal breathing, only about eight percent of air in the lungs is exchanged, and the amount of air in the lungs is one-half the total lung capacity. When a person breathes in deeply, total lung capacity is attained. The amount of air taken in is called the inspiratory capacity. Forceful exhalation results in expulsion of the expiratory reserve volume. A residual volume of air of about eight percent is left in the lungs. The vital capacity is the difference between the total lung capacity and the residual volume. The inspiratory reserve volume is the difference between the total lung capacity and the amount of air in the lungs after taking a normal breath. The functional residual capacity is the amount of air in the lungs after normal exhalation.
- Clark MA, Douglas M, Choi J. Biology 2e. OpenStax. 28 March 2018. https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/36-5-vision. License: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction.