HBS Unit 1 Review Sheet

Whats Covered in this Review Sheet

            1. Body Systems
            2. Directional Terms
            3. Regional Terms
            4. Tissues 
            5. Bones
            6. Standard Curves
            7. DNA Structure
            8. Restriction Enzymes
            9. Polymerase Chain Reaction
            10. DNA Gel Electrophoresis 

Body Systems - (Activity 1.1.1 - Amazing Facts)

Integumentary System

    • Structures – skin; hair; nails
    • Function – protection

Nervous System

    • Structure – brain; spinal cord; nerves
    • Function – communication

Digestive System

    • Structure – oral cavity; esophagus; stomach; intestines 
    • Function – water and energy absorption; solid waste

Respiratory System

    • Structure – nasal passage; trachea; lungs; bronchi; aveoli
    • Function – gas exchange

Urinary System

    • Structure – kidney; ureter; bladder; urethra
    • Function – water absorption; liquid waste

Endocrine System

    • Structure – pituitary gland; adrenal gland; ovaries; testes
    • Function – hormone regulation; communication

Lymphatic & Immune System

    • Structure – lymph nodes; thymus; spleen; bone marrow
    • Function – filtration of toxins and waste; immunity

Skeletal System

    • Structure – bones; joints
    • Function – structure; protection

Muscular System

    • Structure – skeletal muscle; smooth muscle; cardiac muscle
    • Function – movement; heat

Cardiovascular System

    • Structure – heart; arteries; veins; capillaries
    • Function – circulate blood; gas exchange

Directional Terms - (Activity 1.1.2 - Orientation to the Maniken)

Directional TermCommon TermExample
Superiorabove; higherChest is superior to the abdomen.
Inferior below; lowerHeart is inferior to the brain.
Ventralbelly; undersideOur abdomen is on the ventral side of our body.
Dorsaltowards the spineOur spine is the dorsal side of our body.
AnteriorfrontOur eyes, nose and mouth are on the anterior side of our head.
Posteriorback; behindShoulder blade would be consideredposterior.
Superficaltowards the surfaceSkin is a superficial organ.
Deepaway from the surfaceBelow the skin are deep tissues.
Caudaltowards the 'tail'The coccyx is the most caudal vertebrae in our spine.
Cranialtowards the head
LateralouterEars and shoulders would be consider lateral.
Medialtowards the middle/ midlineOur sternum/brestbone would be a considered medial.
Proximalcloser to point of attachment or trunkThe elbow proximal to the wrist.
Distalfurther from point of attachment or trunkFingers are distal to the wrist



Regional Terms - (Activity 1.1.2 - Orientation to the Maniken)

Abdominal – abdomen
Antecubital – ventral elbow
Axillary – armpit
Brachial – upper arm (humerus)
Buccal – cheeck (zygomatic arch)
Calcaneal – heel
Carpal – small bones of wrist
Cephalic – head
Cervical – neck (cervical)
Coxal – hip (pelvis)
Digital – fingers/toes (phalanges)
Femoral – thigh (femur)
Gluteal – buttocks
Inguinal – groin
Lumbar – lower back
Nasal – Nose
Occipital – posterior base of skull
Olecranal – dorsal/posterior elbow
Oral – mouth
Orbital – eye
Patellar – knee cap
Pelvic – pelvis
Popliteal – posterior knee 
Sacral – fused vertebrae near hip
Scapular – shoulder blade
Sternal – breastbone
Tarsal – small bones of ankle
Thoracic – thorax; chest cavity
Umbilical – belly button
Vertebral – spine

regional terms

Epithelial Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)


Author: Berkshire Community College  | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0



Muscle Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0



Connective Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0

Nervous Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)

Bones - (Activity 1.2.2 - Skeletal Scavenger Hunt)

Author: Mariana Ruiz Villarreal | License: Public Domain

Rib Cage

    • True
    • False
    • Floating


    • Cervical (7)
    • Thoracic (12)
    • Lumbar (5)
    • Sacrum (5 fused)
    • Coccyx (4 fused)

Axial Skeleton

Author: Mariana Ruiz Villarreal | License: Public Domain

Standard Curves - (Activity 1.2.4 - Estimating Height from Bones)

Example of a best-fit line.
Title: | Author: OpenStax | Published: OpenStax | License: CC BY 3.0

Linear Regression – Best Fit Line

    1.  A linear regression – or best-fit line – attempts to represent data points in a scatter plot as a representative trend. 

    2. Equation: $y = mx + b$

$y$ = y variable
$m$ = slope
$x$ = x variable
$b$ = y intercept

Examples of positive correlation, negative correlation and no correlation.
Title:  | Author: OpenStax | Published: OpenStax | License: CC BY 3.0

DNA Structure - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

A phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogen base are all the components that make up a nucleotide. The organization of each structural component can be seen to the right.


Function: Nucleotides are marcomolecule-monomers that can be brought together to create a DNA polymer; they are the ‘building blocks’ of DNA.

DNA nucleotide with different colors for the phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and nitrogen base.
Author: OpenStax | License: CC BY 4.0




      1. Double-ring structure
      2. Guanine base pairs with Cytosine
        • They share 3 hydrogen bonds
      3. Adenine base pairs with Thymine
        •  They share 2 hydrogen bonds


Purine Nitrogen Bases in DNA


      1. Single-ring structure
      2. Cytosine base pairs with Guanine 
          •  They share 3 hydrogen bonds
      3. Thymine base pairs with Adenine
          •  They share 2 hydrogen bonds


Pyrimidine Nitrogen Bases in DNA

Polymerase Chain Reaction - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

Step 1 – Denaturation

  1. Raise the temperature.
  2. As a result, the hydrogen bonds in the DNA double strand break and the molecule separates into two separate DNA single strands. (Excuse the alliteration!)

Step 2 – Annealing

  1. Cool the temperature down a bit.
  2. This will allow primers to attach to complimentary sequences on each of the single stranded DNA.

Step 3 – Elongation

  1. Slightly raise the temperature
  2. Taq polymerase will interact with the DNA-primer complex and begin to add nucleotides to the 3′ end of the primer. These nucleotides will be complimentary to whatever nucleotides are on the DNA strand.
Polymerase chain reaction
Title: Polymerase Chain Reaction | Author: Enzoklop | Published: Wikimedia Commons | License: CC BY-SA 3.0



Restriction Enzymes - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

Origin: Restriction enzymes are produced by bacteria to protect the bacterium from foreign, viral DNA.

Function: They recognize a short, specific nucleotide sequences and separate the DNA strands at precise locations.

Application: Scientists have isolated restriction enzymes from bacteria and used them for techniques like genetic cloning and gel electrophoresis.

Restriction enzyme BamHI cuts DNA
Title: BamHI | Author: Simon Caulton | Published: Wikimedia Commons | License: CC BY-SA 4.0



DNA Gel Electrophoresis - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

: DNA gel electrophoresis attempts to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments. 


Function: The DNA sample is loaded into the wells of the gel and a current is applied to the electrophoresis chamber which also contains a salt water buffer. The DNA is moves towards the positive electrode in response to an applied current. Larger DNA fragments move slower through the agarose molecules in the gel.


Application: Gel electrophoresis can be used to analyze and compare the RFLPs of an unknown genetic sample to known genetic samples. For example, DNA evidence at a crime scene can be compared to a series of potential suspects.


→ How to Analyze DNA using Gel Electrophoresis

DNA gel electrophoresis chamber setup.
Title: DNA Gel Electrophoresis| Author: Genome Research Limited | Published: yourgenome | License: CC BY 4.0

Biomterics - (Activity 1.3.3 - Biometrics: Who are you?)

  1. Clark MA, Douglas M, Choi J. “35.2 How Neurons Communicate.” Biology 2eOpenStax, https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/35-2-how-neurons-communicate. License: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction.
  2. Clark, MA, Douglas M, Choi J. “Neurons and Glial Cells.” OpenStax, 28 Mar. 2018, https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/35-1-neurons-and-glial-cellsLicense: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-2cefd46e68cc@10.24.
  3. Young, KA., Wise, JA., DeSaix, P., Kruse, DH., Poe, B., Johnson, E., Johnson, JE., Korol, O., Betts, JG., & Womble, M. “File:1225 Chemical Synapse.jpg” Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1225_Chemical_Synapse.jpg License: CC BY 4.0
  4. Backyard Brains. “Patellar Reflex_web.jpg” Backyard Brains, License: CC BY-SA 3.0 License Terms: No edits were made.
  5. Betts, JG, Young KA, Wise JA, Johnson E, Poe B, Kruse DH, Korol O, Johnson JE, Womble M, DeSaix P. “The Endocrine Pancreas.” Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax, 2013. https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology/pages/17-9-the-endocrine-pancreas. License: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology/pages/1-introduction.